The Kouroukan Fouga divided the Mali Empire into ruling clans lineages that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara. However, the charter made Mali more similar to a constitutional monarchy than a democratic republic. However, the power to call parliament remained at the pleasure of the monarch.
Direct democracies[ edit ] A direct democracy or pure democracy is a type of democracy where the people govern directly. It requires wide participation of citizens in politics. A popular democracy is a type of direct democracy based on referendums and other devices of empowerment and concretization of popular will.
An industrial democracy is an arrangement which involves workers making decisions, sharing responsibility and authority in the workplace see also workplace. A liberal democracy is a representative democracy with protection for individual liberty and property by rule of law.
An illiberal democracy has weak or no limits on the power of the elected representatives to rule as they please. Types of representative democracy include: Electoral democracy — type of representative democracy based on electionon electoral voteas modern occidental or liberal democracies.
Dominant-party system — democratic party system where only one political party can realistically become the government, by itself or in a coalition government. Parliamentary democracy — democratic system of government where the executive branch of a parliamentary government is typically a cabinet, and headed by a prime minister who is considered the head of government.
Westminster democracy — parliamentary system of government modeled after that of the United Kingdom system. Presidential democracy — democratic system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
Jacksonian democracy — a variant of presidential democracy popularized by U. President Andrew Jackson which promoted the strength of the executive branch and the Presidency at the expense of Congressional power. Soviet democracy or Council democracy — form of democracy where the workers of a locality elect recallable representatives into organs of power called soviets councils.
The local soviets elect the members of regional soviets who go on to elect higher soviets. Totalitarian democracy — a system of government in which lawfully elected representatives maintain the integrity of a nation state whose citizens, while granted the right to vote, have little or no participation in the decision-making process of the government.
A demarchy has people randomly selected from the citizenry through sortition to either act as general governmental representatives or to make decisions in specific areas of governance defense, environment, etc.
A non-partisan democracy is system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections by secret ballot take place without reference to political parties.
An organic or authoritarian democracy is a democracy where the ruler holds a considerable amount of power, but their rule benefits the people. The term was first used by supporters of Bonapartism. A cellular democracydeveloped by Georgist libertarian economist Fred E. Foldvaryuses a multi-level bottom-up structure based on either small neighborhood governmental districts or contractual communities.
Types based on level of freedom[ edit ] A liberal democracy is a representative democracy with protection for individual liberty and property by rule of law. In contrast, a defensive democracy limits some rights and freedoms in order to protect the institutions of the democracy.
Types based on ethnic influence[ edit ].The choice of electoral system is one of the most important institutional decisions for any democracy.
In almost all cases the choice of a particular electoral system has a profound effect on the future political life of the country concerned, and electoral systems, once chosen, often remain fairly constant as political interests solidify around and respond to the incentives.
Clearly, an open list proportional representation electoral system is the answer to the problem of corruption in a newly emerging democracy.
Another key part to an electoral system in a newly emerging democracy is representation of the citizen’s interests.
the process of electoral system reform, new case studies, and several additional sections on particular issues such as the quality of representation, the challenge of post-conflict situations, and the use of direct democracy options. An electoral system is a set of rules that determine how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.
Political electoral systems are organized by governments, while non-political elections may take place in business, non-profit organisations and informal organisations.
A new electoral system for a new Malaysia Wong His research interests include research interests include electoral system, party system, parliamentary democracy, federalism and identity politics. He engages the public through trilingual political commentaries and civil society activism.
The newest volume in the acclaimed Journal of Democracy series addresses electoral systems and democracy. As the number of democracies has increased around the world, a heated debate has emerged among experts about which system best promotes the consolidation of democracy.