Chemistry form 4 chapter 2 essay

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Chemistry form 4 chapter 2 essay

This hypothesis relies on the vast size and consistent physical laws of the observable universe. According to this argument, made by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking[6] as well as well-regarded thinkers such as Winston Churchill[7] [8] it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth.

Alternatively, life may have formed less frequently, then spread—by meteoroidsfor example—between habitable planets in a process called panspermia. Numerous discoveries in such zones since have generated numerical estimates of Earth-like planets —in terms of composition—of many billions.

One of the study authors, Sam Levin, notes "Like humans, we predict that they are made-up of a hierarchy of entities, which all cooperate to produce an alien. At each level of the organism there will be mechanisms in place to eliminate conflict, maintain cooperation, and keep the organism functioning.

We can even offer some examples of what these mechanisms will be. It has been suggested that this capacity arises with the number of potential niches a planet contains, and that the complexity of life itself is reflected in the information density of planetary environments, which in turn can be computed from its niches.

Sufficient quantities of carbon and other elements, along with water, might enable the formation of living organisms on terrestrial planets with a chemical make-up and temperature range similar to that of Earth. It is also conceivable that there are forms of life whose solvent is a liquid hydrocarbonsuch as methaneethane or propane.

These six elements form the basic building blocks of virtually all life on Earth, whereas most of the remaining elements are found only in trace amounts.

The carbon atom has the unique ability to make four strong chemical bonds with other atoms, including other carbon atoms.

These covalent bonds have a direction in space, so that carbon atoms can form the skeletons of complex 3-dimensional structures with definite architectures such as nucleic acids and proteins. Carbon forms more compounds than all other elements combined.

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The great versatility of the carbon atom makes it the element most likely to provide the bases—even exotic ones—for the chemical composition of life on other planets.

Planetary habitabilityHabitability of natural satellitesand Exobiology Some bodies in the Solar System have the potential for an environment in which extraterrestrial life can exist, particularly those with possible subsurface oceans.

Important insights on the limits of microbial life can be gleaned from studies of microbes on modern Earth, as well as their ubiquity and ancestral characteristics. If extraterrestrial life was found on another body in the Solar Systemit could have originated from Earth just as life on Earth could have been seeded from elsewhere exogenesis.

The Nobel prize winner Francis Crickalong with Leslie Orgel proposed that seeds of life may have been purposely spread by an advanced extraterrestrial civilization, [46] but considering an early " RNA world " Crick noted later that life may have originated on Earth.

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However, between an altitude of 50 and 65 kilometers, the pressure and temperature are Earth-like, and it has been speculated that thermoacidophilic extremophile microorganisms might exist in the acidic upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere. Life on Mars Life on Mars has been long speculated.

Liquid water is widely thought to have existed on Mars in the past, and now can occasionally be found as low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil.

Chemistry form 4 chapter 2 essay

Scientists have indications that heated subsurface oceans of liquid water may exist deep under the crusts of the three outer Galilean moons —Europa, [37] [38] [75] Ganymede[76] [77] [78] [79] [80] and Callisto. Life on Europa Internal structure of Europa.

The blue is a subsurface ocean.Some Essential Tips On How To Write An Essay About Yourself.

Chapter 2: Essential Chemistry for Biology - Dual Biology Review Site

No matter what’s the purpose of your essay, there is a preset number of . Jun 27,  · BIOLOGY FORM 5 NOTES CHAPTER 4: REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH GAMETE FORMATION. THE NECESSITY FOR ORGANISMS TO REPRODUCE. 1.

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All organisms carry out reproduction to: (a) ensure the continuity of life (b) conserve the continuity of its own species.

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Chemistry form 4 chapter 2 essay

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Students awarded Dean's List honors have earned a minimum grade point average of no lower than for the semester with the completion of at least 12 credit hours. AP BIOLOGY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Chapters: roots that form many of our scientific terms.

It will make life in AP Biology much easier if you AP Biology Reading Guide Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw.

CH Chapter 5 - Chemical Reactions - Chemistry