The rate of a reaction is measured by the amount of reactants converted toproducts per unit of time. A variety of means exist to experimentally measure the loss of reactants or increase of products as a function of time. The rate of a reaction is influenced by reactant concentrations except in zero order processestemperature, surface area, and other environmental factors.
History of tobacco A reproduction of a carving from the temple at PalenqueMexico, depicting a Maya deity using a smoking tube The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to their predecessor, the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes.
The Mayaand later the Aztecssmoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean, Mexico, and Central and South America until recent times.
The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya 's paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, and El juego de la pelota a pala 18th century. Francisco Goya 's La Cometa, depicting a foreground left man smoking an early quasicigarette Cigarettes may have been initially used in a manner similar to pipescigarsand cigarillos and not inhaled; for evidence, see the Lucky Strike ad campaign asking consumers "Do You Inhale?
As cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic, inhaling may have become perceived as more agreeable. However, Moltke noticed in the s cf. Unter dem Halbmond that Ottomans and he himself inhaled the Turkish tobacco and Latakia from their pipes  which are both initially sun-cured, acidic leaf varieties.
The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is largely a 20th-century phenomenon. At the start of the 20th century, the per capita annual consumption in the U.
German doctors were the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancerwhich led to the first antitobacco movement in Nazi Germany. During the Vietnam War, cigarettes were included with C-ration meals.
Inthe U. During the second half of the 20th century, the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking started to become widely known and text-only health warnings became common on cigarette packets. The United States has not implemented graphical cigarette warning labels, which are considered a more effective method to communicate to the public the dangers of cigarette smoking.
The cigarette has evolved much since its conception; for example, the thin bands that travel transverse to the "axis of smoking" thus forming circles along the length of the cigarette are alternate sections of thin and thick paper to facilitate effective burning when being drawn, and retard burning when at rest.
Synthetic particulate filters may remove some of the tar before it reaches the smoker. The "holy grail" for cigarette companies has been a cancer-free cigarette. On record, the closest historical attempt was produced by scientist James Mold.
However, inhis project was terminated. Research has shown that the fall in overall nicotine content has led to smokers inhaling larger volumes per puff. List of smoking bans Many governments impose restrictions on smoking tobaccoespecially in public areas.
The primary justification has been the negative health effects of second-hand smoke. Bhutan is currently the only country in the world to completely outlaw the cultivation, harvesting, production, and sale of tobacco and tobacco products under the Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan Nov 12, · Osteoarthritis is the most common type of joint disease, affecting more than 20 million individuals in the United States alone (see Epidemiology).
It represents a heterogeneous group of conditions resulting in common histopathologic and radiologic changes. AP CHEMISTRY This is a college level chemistry class taught in high school. Upon completion of this course students can take a test to that could result in college credit.
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Big Idea 1: Atoms & Elements. 1 - Molecules & Elements 2 - Chemical Analysis 3 - The Mole 19 - Covalent Bonding.
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Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4 Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Important Documents-Class videos. AP . AP Chemistry-Chapter 3 MC Practice Questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.