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Introduction The mission of the Spatial Data on the Web Working Groupas described in its charteris to clarify and to formalize standards on spatial data on the Web.
This document describes the results of the first steps of working towards these goals. Members of the Working Group Advantages of being multilingual other stakeholders have come up with a number of use cases that describe how spatial data on the Web could work.
From these use cases, a number of requirements for further work are derived. In this document, use cases, requirements and their relationships are described. Requirements and use cases are also related to the deliverables of the Working Group.
The requirements described in this document will be the basis for development of the other four deliverables of the Working Group. For convenience those deliverables are replicated in this chapter. The charter remains the authoritative source of the definition of deliverables.
Further requirements already identified in the geospatial community will be taken into account. Existing standard and de facto ontologies will be examined for applicability; these will include the RDF Data Cube.
The Recommendation will include provision for describing the subset of coverages that are simple timeseries datasets - where a time-varying property is measured at a fixed location.
Given that coverage data can often be extremely large in size, publication of the individual data points as Linked Data may not always be appropriate. The Recommendation will include provision for describing an entire coverage dataset and subsets thereof published in more compact formats using Linked Data.
For example where a third party wishes to annotate a subset of a large coverage dataset or a data provider wishes to publish a large coverage dataset in smaller subsets to support convenient reuse.
The Working Group will also consider these forthcoming standards. Methodology In order to find out the requirements for the deliverables of the Working Group, use cases were collected. For the purpose of the Working Group, a use case is a story that describes challenges with respect to spatial data on the Web for existing or envisaged information systems.
It does not need to adhere to certain standardized format. Use cases are primarily used as a source of requirements, but a use case could be revisited near the time the work of the Working Group will reach completion, to demonstrate that it is now possible to make the use case work.
The Working Group has derived requirements from the collected use cases. A requirement is something that needs to be achieved by one or more deliverables and is phrased as a specification of functionality. Requirements can lead to one or more tests that can prove whether the requirement is met.
Care was taken to only derive requirements that are considered to in scope for the further work of the Working Group. The scope of the Working Group is determined by the charter.
To help keeping the requirements in scope, the following questions were applied: Is the requirement specifically about spatial data on the Web? Is the use case including data published, reused, and accessible via Web technologies? Has a use case a description that can lead to a testable requirement?
Use Cases Use cases that describe current problems or future opportunities for spatial data on the Web have been gathered as a first activity of the Working Group.
They were mainly contributed by members of Working Group, but there were also contributions from other interested parties. In this chapter these use cases are listed and identified. Each use case is related to one or more Working Group deliverables and to one or more requirements for future deliverables.
This is really one of several future, but realistic, meteorological scenarios to aim at. WMO has embarked on a long-term think a decade or so program to update the global meteorological operational infrastructure. The global infrastructure also has aviation, oceanographic, seismic and other users.
The WIS includes a global, federated, synchronized, geospatial catalog, envisaged to encompass all hydro-meteorological data and services. Currently several nodes are operational, cataloging mainly routinely exchanged observations and forecasts.
Envisage an environmental scientist in Cambodia, researching the impact of deforestation in Vietnam as part of investigating the regional impacts of climate change.
She receives an abstract of some form that enables her to decide that the data are worth accessing, and initiates a request for a digital copy to be sent. She receives the pamphlet as a scanned image of each page, and she decides that the quantitative information in the paper is useful, so she arranges transcription of the tabular numerical data and their summary values into a digital form and publishes the dataset, with a persistent identifier, and links it to a detailed coverage extent, the original paper source, the scanned pages and her paper when it is published.
She also incorporates scanned charts and graphs from the original pamphlet into her paper. Her organization creates a catalog record for her research paper dataset and publishes it in the WIS global catalog, which makes it also visible to the GEO System of Systems broker portal.Benefits of Multilingualism.
Cognitive Advantages. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter, says a writer from Science Magazine. Multilingual Literacies in Transnational Digitally-Mediated Contexts: An Exploratory .
Key Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Bilingual. by Torri Myler. Our native language shapes the ways in which we see the world, demarcating the boundary between what we can name, and what is beyond our experience. Being bilingual didn’t prevent people from getting dementia, but it delayed its effects, so in two people whose brains showed similar amounts of disease progression, the bilingual would show symptoms an average of five years after the monolingual.
Bialystok thinks this is because bilingualism rewires the brain and improves the executive system, boosting . Jul 18, · How the Brain Benefits From Being Bilingual.
By Jeffrey Kluger July 18, Share. Read Later. Send to Kindle.
Michael Friberg for TIME. New studies are showing that a multilingual brain is nimbler, quicker, better able to deal with ambiguities, resolve conflicts and even resist Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.
Improvements in Learning. Being bilingual can have tangible practical benefits. The improvements in cognitive and sensory processing driven by bilingual experience may help a bilingual person to better process information in the environment, leading to a clearer signal for learning.
analytical review commissioned by the unesco education sector enhancing learning of children from diverse language backgrounds: mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual.