This essay will cover both genetic and neural explanations of schizophrenia. Most evidence comes from research using family studies which indicate that the closer the genetic relationship to someone with schizophrenia the greater the chance of developing the disorder Gottesman Overall, Tsuang et al estimate that if stringent criteria are used, a first degree relative of schizophrenia has times higher risk of it developing than those with no relatives.
According to Irwin and Cressey aggression occurs in institutional settings because of the pre-exisiting characteristics of the prisoners. This theory implies that aggression is not caused by the situation but the characteristics they bring in with them that affect how they adapt to prison life.
Factors that have an important influence on levels of aggression: Education, Employment History and Race. Situational models propose that aggressive behaviour originates from within the institution itself, not outside of it. There are many different situational factors which may affect an individuals behaviour.
For example, in a prison setting situational factors could include: Studied male inmates recently admitted to a prison in Canada.
Measured the prisoners levels of aggression based on whether they had been reported to commit an act of serious misconduct and they compared these findings with their scores on the Alcohol Dependence Scale.
Found that those who has substantial alcohol dependency were more likely to have committed serious misconduct.
Supporting Research Evaluation of Dispositional Factors: This model is supported by various studies which have found significant relationships between outside gang membership, race and educational level and the level of institutional aggression shown.
Kane and Janus found that non-whites and younger inmates are more likely to be aggressive in prison. Praised for providing a more complex account as to why aggression occurs within institutions.
It does not assume that all inmates will be influenced in the same way but instead acknowledges factors such as age, culture and membership to sub cultures. This therefore means that it accounts for individual differences and is likely to be accepted as a plausible explanation for aggression in institutions.
Practical Applications Evalution of Dispositional Factors: Has some practical value, for example, if it is an underlying cause such as alcohol dependency that cause the levels of aggression in prison then these issues can be dealt with on an individual basis.
However, some psychologists argue that this is not a cost effective or efficient way of dealing with aggression in institutions and that there are factors within the prison itself which can be adjusted to have more impact.
According to Sykes aggression arises via various forms of deprivation that prisoners experience on a day-to-day basis. Based on research he developed the deprivation model. Types of deprivation include: According to Sykes, aggression occurs as a way for prisoners to vent these frustrations and reduce stress.
Emphasised that the situation an individual is in can have a powerful influence on their willingness to harm others. In his Stanford Prison Experiment he found that institutional factors such as lack of external constraints and pressure from peers led to aggression towards inmates.
Some studies have suggested that increasing personal space had no effect on the levels of aggression in psychiatric institutions. Also, other empirical research conducted in prisoners does not seem to support the hypothesis that there is a direct correlation.
This therefore lowers the validity of the theory and means that no firm conclusions regarding the cause of institutional aggression can be drawn without further research into the area.
Consistent levels of deprivation Evaluation of Situational Factors: There are various brain structures that have been implicated in aggression, these include the amygdala, hypothalamus and the frontal lobe.
One area of the brain thought to play a key role in aggression is the amygdala. Research has found that direct stimulation of the amygdala in hamsters produces aggressive behaviour and that the amygdala is more active when they are under threat of attack.Sexual intercourse may be called coitus, copulation, coition, or intercourse (the last of which is typically shorthand for sexual intercourse).Coitus is derived from the Latin word coitio or coire, meaning "a coming together or joining together" or "to go together", and is known under different ancient Latin names for a variety of sexual activities, but usually denotes penile–vaginal.
Rae West 20th August Some people believe that whites need to reunite as Christian communities as part of the process of opposing so-called 'Jews'. Or to return to what they think was a comfortable, better life as Christians.
Aggression Revision: Exam essay plans. Q1. Outline and evaluate two social psychological theories of aggression (e.g. social learning theory, deindividuation) Theory 1. • Social learning theory= originated from work of Gabriel Tarde () Learning= relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience.
IB Psychology notes on The biological level of analysis: General learning outcomes - Explain how principles that define the Biological Level of Analysis may be demonstrated in research.
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